Red Apple (Malus pumila)

                 

Catechin                                                                        Chlorogenic acid

 

Red apple is edible fruit produced by an apple tree (Malus domestica) Apple trees are cultivated on a large scale worldwide and are the most widely grown species in the genus Malus. There are more than 7,500 known cultivars of apples. There are a few varieties of apple, red apples are always the first choice for direct consumption purpose because they are sweet.

Red apple is rich in antioxidants, pectin, quercetin and polyphenol. Red apple has a higher polyphenol content than other apple varieties. The predominant polyphenol compounds are catechin and chlorogenic acid.


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HEALTH BENEFITS

1. Antioxidant

Study showed that apple polyphenol extract (APE) prevents oxidative induced damage to gastric epithelial cell, MKN 28 in vitro. This effect is associated with the antioxidant activity of apple phenolic compounds.

APE prevented xanthine-xanthine oxidase (X-XO) induced cell damage by dose dependant manner (Figure 1); APE prevented X-XO induced decrease in total antioxidant intracellular activity (Figure 2A) APE prevented X-XO induced increase in cellular malondialdehyde (MDA) (Figure 2B); The major phenolic contents of APE, catechin (CAT) and chlorogenic acid (CA) had protective effect against X-XO injury to MKN 28 cells comparable with that obtained with APE 10-4 M (Figure 3)

Figure 1: Apple polyphenol extracts (APE) dose dependently prevented xanthine-xanthine oxidase (X-XO) induced damage to MKN 28 cells. MKN 28 cells were incubated with APE 10-7 to 10-4 M or with serum free medium (control) for three hours and then, after washing, with X (1 mM)-XO (50 mU/ml) or serum free medium for two hours. Mean (SD) from three separate experiments run in duplicate. *p<0.05 versus control; ⴕp<0.05 versus X-XO.

Figure 2: Effects of apple polyphenol extracts (APE) on total antioxidant intracellular activity and on lipid peroxidation in MKN 28 cells. (A) APE prevented xanthine-xanthine oxidase (X-XO) induced decrease in total antioxidant intracellular activity in MKN 28 cells. Cells were treated with serum free medium (control) or APE (10-4 M) for three hours and then with serum free medium or X (1 mM)-XO (50 mU/ml) for two hours. Mean (SD) of three separate experiments run in duplicate. *p<0.05 versus control; ⴕp<0.05 versus X-XO. (B) APE prevented X-XO induced increase in cellular MDA in MKN 28 cells. Cells were treated with serum free medium (control) or APE (10-4 M) for three hours and then with serum free medium or X (1 mM)-XO (50 mU/ml) for two hours. Mean (SD) from three separate experiments run in duplicate. *p<0.05 versus control; ⴕp<0.05 versus X-XO

Figure 3: Protective effect of apple polyphenol extracts (APE), catechin (CAT), or chlorogenic acid (CA) against xanthine-xanthine oxidase (X-XO) induced cell injury. Cells were incubated with serum free medium (control) or with APE (10-4 M), CAT (10-4 M), or CA(10-4 M) for three hours and then, after washing, with X (1 mM)-XO (50 mU/ml) or serum free medium (control) for two hours. Mean (SD) from three separate experiments run in duplicate. *p<0.05 versus control; ⴕp<0.05 versus X-XO

 

2. Reduce Cholesterol 

Study demonstrated that rats fed with apple diet showed increase of total steroid excretion and significantly reduce of cholesterol apparent absorption. This effect might be contributed by fibre in apple such as pectin that could exert a destabilising effect on lipid emulsion and inhibit cholesterol absorption.

Table 1: Total steroid excretion and cholesterol apparent absorption in rats adapted to the experimental 0.3% cholesterol diets with (Apple) or without (Control) 15% lyophilized applea

 

Heart Health

Red apple is high in soluble fiber and polyphenol which helps lower cholesterol and blood pressure, associate with the risk of heart disease

Reduce risk of diabetes

Eating apples can help to reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes, potentially due to the high amount of polyphenol quercetin content.

Promote Gut Health

Apple contains pectin, a type of fiber that acts as a prebiotic which promote the growth of gut-friendly bacteria.

Usages:

  • Fruit and beverage
  • Ingredient in health supplement

 

Red Apple Extract Powder 200g/1Kg, Natural Additives Enhance Antioxidant 100% Fruit Dietary Fiber Vitamin C.No Preservative

  • 100% natural without anti-caking agents/additives
  • Granular powder, uniform particle size, excellent fluidity & solubility
  • Rich source of polyphenols, an important group of antioxidants
  •  Improve digestion
  •  Help in weight loss
  •  Vegan
  •  Non-GMO
  •  No Fillers
  •  No Flavors
  •  No Additives
  •  No Preservatives
  •  No Artificial Colors
  •  Soy and Gluten-Free

https://bionutriciaextract.com/product/red-apple-extract-powder-200g-1kg-natural-additives-enhance-antioxidant-100-fruit-dietary-fiber-vitamin-c-no-preservative/


Reference

  1. Apple polyphenol extracts prevent damage to human gastric epithelial cells in vitro and to rat gastric mucosa in vivo

    DOI: 10.1136/gut.2004.046292

  2. Apple favourably affects parameters of cholesterol metabolism and of anti-oxidative protection in cholesterol-fed rats

    DOI: 10.1016/S0308-8146(01)00235-7