Knowledge: White Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum)

White Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum)

White tomato is an heirloom, indeterminate tomato variety. It is beefsteak type tomato with a creamy white flesh and skin. The fruits turn slightly yellow as they ripen. It has low acid levels give it a sweet, fruity flavour. This tomato came into existence as a single mutation from plants grown from a packet of yellow and orange Oxheart tomato seeds.

White tomato has almost no coloured carotenoids (p-carotene and lycopene), and they are the richest tomato source of their dominant colourless carotenoids (phytoene and phytofluene). Phytoene and Phytofluene are members of the carotenoid family, being the precursors for all other carotenoids in nature. These carotenoids absorb light in the UV range, with Phytoene absorbing in the UVB range (λ max 287nm) and Phytofluene absorbing in the UVA (λ max 348nm and 366nm); White tomatoes do not absorb light from the visible spectrum – they reflect visible white light and thus appear white.

White tomato extract powder produced by Bionutricia has been used in health foods, such as products to prevent ultraviolet burns, skin protection products, anti-aging products and carotenoid complex products. It has mild taste and no colorless which is suitable to be consumed by people who do not like the classic tomato flavour of red tomatoes. When it is used in skincare products, we do not need to worry about staining or colouring the skin like red tomatoes and their derived products may do.

Health benefits:

  1. Serves as a natural sunscreen against UVA and UVB rays to protect against UV damage, photo-oxidation and sunburn.
  2. Anti-oxidant effect to protect against free radical damage caused by environmental aggressors (smoke, haze, pollution).
  3. Contains anti-inflammatory properties against wounds and UV damage.
  4. Inhibits melanin synthesis to prevent pigmentation spots from forming through inhibition of tyrosinase
  5. Reduces the melanin present in the cells including dark acne scars, freckles, dark underarms and age spots for an anti-ageing and anti-photo ageing effect.
  6. Prevents DNA damage.
  7. Promotes even skin tone and radiant complexion.

We provide practical, easy & consistent on food processing application.
Fresh natural flavor extract powder for Bakery & Beverage.

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HEALTH BENEFITS

Improve skin’s general condition

A clinical study was conducted to assess in humans the photoprotective effect of orally consumed Phytoene and Phytofluene.

In vivo study
Subject 22 healthy females (20-40 years old, skin phototype II)
Duration 84 days
Group & Dosage Oral supplement, tomato powder rich in colorless carotenoids, corresponding to daily dose equivalent of 5 mg of Phytoene and Phytofluene
Parameters analyzed
  • Minimum Erythemal Dose (MED) was measured on the back of the subjects before they started taking the supplement (D0), then after 41-42 days (22 subjects) and 83-84 days (20 subjects).
  • The changes in skin quality as a result of the supplementation were assessed clinically by dermatologist.
Outcomes Visible benefits

  • The result shows an average increase of 10% in the minimum erythemal dose (MED), with 65% of the volunteers having a 20% increase in the MED value after 84 days.
  • The scores across all parameters tested (dryness, roughness, suppleness, evenness of complexion, texture) were significantly enhanced in 55-95% of the volunteers after 84 days
Functions Phytoene and Phytofluene, can help to protect skin against UV damage, providing a significant photoprotective effect.

The increase in MED shows that Phytoene and Phytofluene do migrate and accumulate into the skin and help improve the skin’s general condition.

Absorb UV light

A clinical study was conducted to investigate photoprotective effects of Lycopene in comparison with Phytoene and Phytofluene.

In vivo study
Subject 36 healthy adults with body mass index (BMI) of 18–25 kg/m2, skin type II
Duration 12 weeks
Group & Dosage
  • Lycopene group: received synthetic lycopene 10.2 mg daily
  • Lyc-o-Mato group: received tomato extract contained 9.8 mg lycopene, 0.8 mg phytofluene, 1.0mg phytoene, 0.4 mg β-carotene
  • Lyc-o-Guard-Drink group: consumed 500mL solubilized Lyc-o-Mato®drink contained 8.2 mg lycopene, 3.2 mg phytofluene, 4.6 mg phytoene, and 0.4 mg β-carotene.
Parameters analyzed
  • Serum was obtained on day 0, week 4 and week 12. Lycopene, phytoene, phytofluene were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)
  • At weeks 0, 4, and 12 an erythema was induced with a solar light simulator. Dorsal skin of each subject was irradiated with 1.25 minimal erythemal dose (MED). Reddening of the skin was evaluated before and 24 hours after irradiation by chromametry and expressed as positive a-values (red/green-axis). delta a-values (difference of a-value before irradiation and after 24 hours) were used as an index of erythema intensity.
Outcomes Visible benefits

  • After 12 weeks of supplementation, significant increases in lycopene serum levels and total skin carotenoids were observed in all groups. Significant increases in the serum levels of phytofluene and phytoene occurred in the Lyc-o-Mato and the Lyco-Guard-Drink group.
  • A decrease in the delta a-value from week 0 to week 12, indicating prevention of erythema formation, was observed in all groups. Compared to week 0, the delta avalue at week 12 was 25% lower in the synthetic lycopene group. The protective effect was more pronounced in the Lyc-o-Mato (38%) and Lyc-o-Guard-Drink (48%) groups.
Functions Phytofluene and phytoene may have contributed to protection. Both of these carotenoids exhibit absorption maxima at wavelengths of UV light. Absorption of UV light protects skin from photodamage and might explain the differences observed between groups.

Modify erythema response to UV-B in human (sunburn)

In vivo study in guinea pig was conducted to investigate Phytoene as protective agent against sunburn
Subject Female albino guinea pigs weighing from 600 to 800
Duration 2 weeks
Group & Dosage
  • Group 1: 7 animals received phytoene 17 mg/100g body weight (total dose 238mg)
  •                  12 animals placebo
  • Group 2: 10 animals received phytoene 6 mg/100g body weight (total dose 84mg)
  •                  10 animals placebo
Parameters analyzed Subjects were given varying doses per g of body weight of a preparation of phytoene by intraperitoneal injection daily.

UV irradiation (> 280 nm) on the epilated skin. At 24 hours after exposure, the exposed sites were observed for the presence of erythema and edema.

Outcomes Visible benefits

Animals that received daily doses of phytoene (17 mg/100g body weight) developed significantly less erythema to the radiation than the animals that received placebo.

Functions Phytoene and possibly other carotenoids and carotenoid precursors, such as  phytofluene, given orally can modify the erythema response to UV-B in human (sunburn).

Reference

  1. Ramadan, M.F., Al-Ghamdi, A. (2012) Bioactive compounds and health-promoting properties of royal jelly: A review. Journal of functional foods, 4 (1): 39-52
  2. J. Meléndez-Martínez, P. Mapelli-Brahm, A. Benítez-González, C.M. Stinco (2015) A comprehensive review on the colorless carotenoids phytoene and phytofluene. Arch Biochem Biophys, 572: 188-200
  3. Paula Mapelli-Brahm, Antonio J Meléndez-Martínez (2021) The colourless carotenoids phytoene and phytofluene: sources, consumption, bioavailability and health effects. Current Opinion in Food Science, Volume 41: 201-209
  4. Antonio J. Meléndez-Martínez, Carla M. Stinco, and Paula Mapelli-Brahm (2019) Skin Carotenoids in Public Health and Nutricosmetics: The Emerging Roles and Applications of the UV Radiation-Absorbing Colourless Carotenoids Phytoene and Phytofluene. Nutrients: 11(5)
  5. von Oppen-Bezalel L, Fishbein D, Havas F, Ben-Chitrit O, Khaiat A (2015) The photoprotective effects of a food supplement tomato powder rich in phytoene and phytofluene, the colorless carotenoids, a preliminary study. Glob Dermatology 2:178-182 DOI: 10.15761/GOD.1000149
  6. Aust O, Stahl W, Sies H, Tronnier H, Heinrich U (2005). Supplementation with tomatobased products increases lycopene, phytofluene, and phytoene levels in human serum and protects against UV-light-induced erythema. Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 75 (1): 54–60. DOI: 10.1024/0300-9831.75.1.54
  7. Mathews-Roth, M.M.; Pathak, M.A. (1975) Phytoene as a protective agent against sunburn (greater than 280 nm) radiation in guinea pigs. Photochem Photobiol Apr; 21(4):261-263. DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.1975.tb06666.x

White Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) Standardized Extract Powder

  • Skin whitening
  • Anti-aging
  • Vitamin C
  • Improve skin hydration
  • Inhibit melanin synthesis
  • Vegan
  • Non-GMO
  • No Fillers
  • No Flavors
  • No Additives
  • No Preservatives
  • No Artificial Colors
  • Soy and Gluten Free