Knowledge: Walnut (Juglans Regia)

Walnut (Juglans Regia)

The Juglans regia, the walnut species we commonly know as the English walnut, finds its historical roots in Persia (modern day Iran) since 7000 B.C. The fruit then spread East and West across the Asian and European continents where the native trees can be found from the Balkans to China. By the Middle Ages, walnuts were cultivated as far north as England. During the early 1800s Juglans regia walnuts were taken from England to North America and became a popular tree. Nowadays cultivation of the walnut takes place in many countries worldwide. The annual harvest is around 1.5 million tonnes. China is the world’s leading producer followed by the USA, Iran and Turkey. Within Europe, the main producers are Ukraine, Romania, France and Italy.

Modern research has found that a daily intake of walnuts can improve key cognitive functions like memory and speed. This is likely attributed to the alpha-linolenic acid found in walnuts, a type of omega-3 fatty acid. Walnuts are significantly higher in omega-3 fat than any other nut, providing 2.5 grams per 28-gram serving. This essential fatty acid need to be obtain from diet. According to the Institute of Medicine, adequate intake of ALA is 1.6 and 1.1. grams per day for men and women respectively. A single serving of walnuts meets that guideline. Walnuts are made up of 65% fat and about 15% of protein. Walnut is the most valuable of all hard shell fruits. High healthy fats present in walnut also can decrease appetite and hunger and eventually help in controlling weight.

Walnuts are most often eaten on their own as a snack but can also be added to salads, pastas, breakfast cereals, soups, and baked goods. It is also can be added into smoothies or shakes. They are also used to make walnut oil — an expensive culinary oil frequently used in salad dressings. The walnut oil can be used for aesthetic purposes.

Our walnut protein powder is a spray dried powder with maximum good fatty acids recovered. It is not only contain high protein content, but also has fragrant nutty aroma that make it suitable for incorporating into baked goods.

  • Antioxidant properties
  • Anti-inflammatory properties
  • Hepatoprotective effect
  • Prevent atherosclerosis
  • Anti-mutagenic and anticancer properties
  • Promotes wound healing

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HEALTH BENEFITS

Improve mood

In vivo study on effect of walnut on mood
Subject Healthy college students (n=64)
Group
  1. Placebo
  2. Intervention
Duration 8 weeks
Dosage 60g walnut
Parameters analyzed Questionnaire on profiles of mood states
Outcomes Visible benefits
Walnut diet has significant effect in total mood in men.
Functions Walnut can improve the mood of healthy individuals.

Improve memory performance

In vivo study on effect of walnut on memory
Subject Rat (n=14)
Groups
  1. Placebo + scopolamine
  2. Intervention + scopolamine
Duration 4 weeks
Dosage 400 mg/kg/day
Parameters analyzed Memory test and brain oxidative level
Outcomes Visible benefits
Pre-administration of walnut significantly restore impaired memory function and cholinergic dysfunction and induced oxidative stress caused by scopolamine.
Functions Walnut may reduce oxidative stress and enhance serotonergic system and thus improve memory performance.


Schematic representation showing suggested mechanism of memory impairment following scopolamine administration (a) and memory improvement following walnut administration (b). Scopolamine which is a muscarinic antagonist induces age related memory loss by reducing cholinergic functions and causing oxidative stress. The supplementation of walnut shows antioxidative potential and thus attenuates the scopolamine-induced oxidative stress and cholinergic dysfunction. Walnut enhances serotonergic system by providing the essential amino acids and fatty acids. Reduced oxidative stress and improved memory function are observed following walnut supplementation in the present study.

Reduce cholesterol levels

In vivo study on effect of walnut on cholesterol
Subject Hypercholesterolemic men and women aged ~56 (n=55)
Group
  1. Placebo
  2. Intervention
Duration 6 weeks
Dose 6-11g walnut per meal
Parameters analyzed Low-density lipoprotein fatty acids, serum lipid levels, lipoprotein levels, and LDL resistance to in vitro oxidative stress.
Outcomes Visible benefits
The walnut diet reduced total cholesterol level, LDL cholesterol level, and lipoprotein(a) level. Low-density lipoprotein particles were enriched with polyunsaturated fatty acids from walnuts, but their resistance to oxidation was preserved.
Functions Walnut rich diet reduces total and LDL cholesterol levels in people with high cholesterol.

Improve Men Health

In vivo study on effect of walnut on men health
Subject Healthy elderly men (n=20)
Group
  1. Control
  2. Treatment
Duration 6 weeks
Dosage 15g/day
Parameters analyzed Blood test and hormone level
Outcomes Visible benefits
Total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and triglyceride (TG) levels significantly decreased only for walnut diet. Testosterone (T) increased and C reactive protein decreased in treatment group compared to control.
Functions Walnut supplementation improved lipid profile, steroid hormones and systematic inflammation in aged men performing concurrent training due to the presence of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA).

CTW is walnut diet.

Anti-inflammation

In vivo study on effect of walnut on inflammation
Subject Mice (n=18)
Group
  1. High fat diet
  2. High fat diet + walnut
Duration 20 weeks
Dosage 10-15g/day
Parameters analyzed Lipid composition, inflammatory cells gene expression
Outcomes Visible benefits

  • Dietary walnuts significantly decreased the amounts of hepatic triglyceride in HFD-fed mice.
  • Walnut intake significantly altered the levels of proteins, involved in the hepatic lipid homeostasis, which exert the protective effects on adipose tissue injury.
  • Treatment group showed significantly decreased levels of macrophage infiltration with suppressed expression of pro-inflammatory genes compared to those significantly elevated in control group.
Functions Walnuts can protect against HFD-induced hepatic lipid accumulation by modulating the key proteins in hepatic lipid homeostasis and suppress the genes related to adipose tissue inflammation and macrophage infiltration as well as prevention of adipocyte apoptosis.

Control Appetite

In vivo study on effect of walnut on appetite
Subject Adult obese individual (n=10)
Group
  1. Control
  2. Treatment
Duration 5 days
Dosage 48g/day
Parameters analyzed Functional magnetic resonance imaging
Outcomes Visible benefits

Walnut consumption decreased feelings of hunger and appetite assessed using visual analog scales and increased the activation of the right insula to highly desirable food cues such as cakes and french fries.

Functions Walnut consumption may increase salience and cognitive control processing of highly desirable food cues.

In a paired t-test, participants showed an increased activation of the right insula (A) after 5 days of walnut consumption vs. placebo in response to highly desirable vs. less desirable food cues. BOLD contrasts are superimposed on a T1 structural image in an axial section (z=10, in neurological orientation). The colour bar represents the voxel t-score. Effect sizes (z-scores) are shown as mean with standard error bars (B).

Improve Gut Health

In vivo study on effect of walnut on gut health
Subject Healthy individuals (n=194)
Group
  1. Control
  2. Treatment
Duration 8 weeks
Dosage 43g/day
Parameters analyzed Fecal test and gene expression
Outcomes Visible benefits

Walnut consumption significantly increase the abundance of Ruminococcaceae and Bifidobacteria while decreased the Clostridium sp. cluster

Functions Daily walnut intake affects the gut microbiome by enhancing probiotic- and butyric acid-producing species in healthy individuals.

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