Knowledge: Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana)

Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana)

Garcinia mangostana is a tropical fruit native to Southeast Asia cultivated in Indonesia, Malaysia, Sri Lanka, the Philippines, and Thailand. Mangosteen is an exotic, tropical fruit with a slighty sweet tangy and sour flavor. As this fruit is said to offer many health benefits, it is commonly referred as a “superfruit”, or the Food of Gods and this fruit has been nominated as the “Queen of Fruits” in tropical countries. The rind of mangosteen fruit is typically dark purple colour and the fruit/pulp of mangosteen is in white colour, segmented with seeds.

Mangosteen is a seasonal fruit and bears most fruit during the heat of the summer – between June and August / between November and February.

Fruit/Flesh of mangosteen is available in fresh or canned, as juice or supplement powder.

Mangosteen is rich source of antioxidants and vitamins.

  • Calories: 143 calories
  • Carbs: 35 grams
  • Fiber: 3.5 grams
  • Fat: 1 gram
  • Protein: 1 gram
  • Vitamin C: 9% of the Reference Daily Intake (RDI)
  • Vitamin B9 (folate): 15% of the RDI
  • Vitamin B1 (thiamine): 7% of the RDI

Phytochemicals

  • naturally occurring polyphenol – Xanthones
  • major xanthone compounds in mangosteen are α-mangostin and γ-mangostin

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HEALTH BENEFITS

High antioxidants

Randomized, double‐blind, placebo‐controlled clinical trial
Subject 60 participants – 30 men and 30 women (age 18 – 60 years old)
Group
  1. Placebo group
  2. Mangosteen group
Duration 30 days
Dosage A daily single dose (245 mL) of placebo (fructose liquid) or Verve energy drink (mangosteen- based formula)
Parameters analyzed
  • Plasma antioxidant capacity was determined by the ORAC assay
  • Inflammatory marker C- reactive protein (CRP) was tested using a commercial immunoassay kit from Abcam
Outcomes Visible benefits

  • Mangosteen group showed 15% more antioxidant capacity in the bloodstream than did the placebo group.
  • the C‐reactive protein level significantly decreased by 46%, while no significant decreases for the same biomarker was observed in the placebo group.

Figure 1: Plasma ORAC levels of mangosteen and placebo groups after intervention.

Figure 2: Plasma C- reactive protein concentrations of mangosteen and placebo groups before and after intervention.

Functions Mangosteen-based formula significantly increases antioxidant capacity and possesses anti-inflammatory benefits。

Rich sources of antioxidants

Lab experiments
Subject Fresh mangosteen purchased in a retail store in Bangkok, Thailand
Group
  1. Mangosteen without yellow gum
  2. Mangosteen with yellow gum
Duration
Dosage
Parameters analyzed Antioxidant activity
Outcomes Visible benefits

  • Quantitative evaluation revealed that yellow gum had extremely high amounts of α-mangostin and γ-mangostin (382.2 and 144.9 mg/g on a wet basis, respectively) followed by pericarp and aril.
  • Pericarp and yellow gum showed much higher radical-scavenging activity and ferric reducing antioxidant potential than the aril.

  • Antioxidant activity was highest in yellow gum, followed by the pericarp and the aril.
  • y-Mangostin was the most important contributor to antioxidative activity
Functions
  • Yellow gum is a physiological disorder in mangosteen. It is caused by exposure of the mangosteen fruit or the trunk of the tree to direct sunlight, excess water during maturation, physical damage to the pericarp or some types of pest infestation, and it is a major problem in mangosteen cultivation because it brings about hard flesh with poor flavor and downgrades the commercial value of the fruit.
  • The yellow gum and the pericarp of the mangosteen fruit showed much higher antioxidative activity than the aril part in terms of unit weight. The yellow gum of mangosteen might serve as a source of a-mangostin and y-mangostin

Anti-inflammatory properties

Lab experiments
Subject Obese patients (n = 122)
Group 4 groups including placebo, and 3 different doses of test product
Duration 8 weeks
Dosage XanGo Juice™: 3, 6 or 9 oz twice daily
(XanGo Juice™ contains a whole fruit puree of the mangosteen in addition to other fruit juices)
Parameters analyzed Level of inflammatory proteins (HS-CRP)
Outcomes Visible benefits

  • A proprietary mangosteen juice blend (XanGo Juice™) reduced CRP levels (increased change from baseline) compared to placebo for those taking the highest dose of 18 oz per day.
  • CRP = one of the inflammatory proteins in obese patients, increase level in inflammatory proteins act as preditor of cardiovascular disease / precursor of other metabolic diseases.

Table 1: Mean HS-CRP level before and after mangosteen juice supplementation.

Functions Mangosteen Juice demonstrated an ability to reduce inflammation (as measured by HS-CRP), at all 3 dosages while the placebo group showed a small increase in the amount of inflammation.

Supports blood sugar control

Prospective randomized, controlled, parallel group study
Subject Obese insulin resistant patients (n = 20)
Group
  • standard hypocaloric diet and physical activity
  • standard hypocaloric diet, physical activity, and treatment with mangosteen supplement
Duration 26 weeks
Dosage Mangosteen supplement 400 mg once daily
Parameters analyzed Insulin levels, (homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance) HOMA IR%, Glucose level
Outcomes Visible benefits

  • The mangosteen group reported a significant improvement in insulin sensitivity (homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance
  • Insulin levels at 26 weeks decreased significantly in the treatment group compared to control (−53.2% vs. −15.2%, p = 0.004)

Figure 1: Glucose metabolism markers. (A) Insulin levels decreased significantly in the treatment group compared to control at 26 weeks; (B) HOMA IR% change went in the same direction in favor of the mangosteen group that showed a frank improvement in insulin resistance; (C) glucose levels did not significantly change in any of the studied arms.
*For its pilot nature, a small number of obese insulin resistant patients who were otherwise healthy were recruited, potentially hindering the possibility of detecting significant changes.

Functions Mangosteen could potentially represent an appealing treatment of insulin resistance, given its favorable cost/benefit ratio.

Reduces fats accumulation, improves antioxidant and anti-inflammation activities

In vivo experiment
Subject Healthy Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 40) fed with/without high fat diet for 10 weeks
Group
  1. Normal diet rats + distilled water
  2. HFD rats + distilled water
  3. HFD rats + 200 mg/kg Garcinia mangostana flesh
  4. HFD rats + 400 mg/kg GMF
  5. HFD rats + 600 mg/kg GMF
Duration 7 weeks
Dosage Supplementation with GMF in obese rats (200 mg/kg, 400 mg/kg and 600 mg/kg) via oral gavage
Parameters analyzed Plasma lipid profile, antioxidant enzymes and pro-inflammatory markers
Outcomes Visible benefits

  • Supplementation with GMF for 7 weeks in obese rats reduced their body weight, improved lipid profile, increased total antioxidant capacity and glutathione peroxidase level and lowered plasma pro-inflammatory markers (TNF-α and IL-6) (p < 0.05).
  • In addition, GMF supplementation attenuated the abnormalities of the liver and kidney tissue caused by high fat diet.

Table 1: The effect of mangosteen flesh supplementation on plasma glucose and lipid profile in rats. *NC = normal control; OC = obese control

Table 2: The effect of mangosteen flesh supplementation on plasma antioxidant enzymes and total antioxidant status.

Table 3: The effect of mangosteen flesh supplementation on inflammatory markers.

Functions Supplementation of Garcinia mangostana flesh may help in reducing body weight and has the potential to ameliorate the biochemical changes of the high fat diet-induced obesity in rats.

Mangosteen Fruit (Garcinia mangostana) Standardized Extract Powder

  • Can help the stomach
  • May assist with fatigue
  • Rich in essential nutrients
  • May improve digestive health
  • May benefit the kidney and spleen
  • Easy to add to your diet