Kale (Brassica oleracea var. sabellica)
Kale (Brassica oleracea var. sabellica)
Kale is one of the healthiest and most nutritious leafy greens in existence, often called as nutrition superstar.
It is a member of the mustard (Brassicaceae), from same family as cabbage and brussels sprouts. Kale is a green, leafy, cruciferous vegetable that is packed with different nutrients, including rich content of fiber, antioxidants, calcium, vitamin C and K, iron and many more.
Types of Kale:
Curly kale (scots kale) : most common type, gives pungent and peppery flavour.
Dinosaur kale : has narrow green leaves, wrinkle like dinosaur skin.
- Redbor kale : with ruffled leaves, with color ranging from a deep red to purple
- Russian kale : harder to find, has flat fringed leaves, color ranging from green to red to purple, gives more sweet and peppery flavour.
One cup (67 grams) of raw kale contains only 33 calories!
- 7 grams of carbohydrates (2 of which are fiber) and 3 grams of protein, very little fat (mos)
- Vitamin A: 206% of the DV (from beta-carotene)
- Vitamin K: 684% of the DV
- Vitamin C: 134% of the DV
- Vitamin B6: 9% of the DV
- Manganese: 26% of the DV
- Calcium: 9% of the DV
- Copper: 10% of the DV
- Potassium: 9% of the DV
- Magnesium: 6% of the DV
- It also contains 3% or more of the DV for vitamin B1 (thiamin), vitamin B2 (riboflavin), vitamin B3 (niacin), iron and phosphorus
Lutein and zeaxanthin
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|Samples||The work was performed on these types of Kale-based snacks, bought on local markets: “Inspiral kale” chips, containing: Kale (56%), Wasabi mix (formed by raphanus, mustard,wasabi 1.4%, spirulin, wheat 0.9%, salt, pepper; “Yellow kale” chips, containing Kale, yellow sweet pepper, olive oil, salt; “Happy kale” snack, containing Kale, sunflower, seeds, water, coconut, carob, vanilla extract, salt; “Kale crackits” (like crackers), containing Kale, sunflower seed, carrot, buckwheat, almonds, olive oil, flax seed, garlic, salt
Samples were homogenized with 3 volumes of ethanol and kept at 4 ˚C overnight, on horizontal shaker. After centrifugation, the supernatant was collected, dried and re-suspended in 3 ml of sterile pure water.
|Duration||50% effective concentration (EC50) = defined as the sample concentration (mg) necessary to inhibit the DPPH radical activity by 50% during a 60-min incubation|
|Dosage||Free radical scavenging capacity – 7.5 μL of extract|
Table 1: Total polyphenols (A), total glucosinolates (B) and antioxidant activity (C) of the four kale-based snakcs. The data are expressed as mean of 3 independent experiments ± SD.
Lowering risk factors of coronary artery disease
|Subject||Men with hypercholesterolemia (> 200 mg/dL) (n = 32)|
|Dosage||150 mL of kale juice daily|
|Parameters analyzed||Serum lipid profile|
Table 1: Effects of kale juice supplementation on serum lipid profiles and atherogenic index in hypercholesterolemic men.
|Functions||Regular meals supplementation with kale juice can favourably influence serum lipid profiles and antioxidant systems, and hence contribute to reduce the risks of coronary artery disease in male subjects with hyperlipidaemia|
|Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel trial|
|Subject||Non-exudative AMD patients (n = 20)
non-exudative AMD Age-related macular degeneration = characterized by the degeneration of the retina and the choroid in the posterior pole due to either atrophy or RPE detachment.
** In the wet, or exudative, form of age-related macular degeneration (AMD or ARMD), pathologic choroidal neovascular membranes (CNVM) develop under the retina. The CNVM can leak fluid and blood and, if left untreated, ultimately cause a centrally blinding disciform scar.
|Duration||4 weeks intervention|
|Dosage||50 mL of a beverage containing either an oleaginous extract of kale (kale) or refined rapeseed oil (placebo|
|Parameters analyzed||Plasma xanthophyll concentrations and the optical density of the macular pigment xanthophylls (MPOD)|
Figure 1: Design of study protocol.
|Functions||An oleaginous extract of kale is able to elevate the xanthophyll concentrations in blood and macula of AMD patients. Both effects did not persist over a 4-week washout period. Hence, a continuous and adequate uptake of xanthophylls is necessary to counteract the declining values|
|In vitro lab experiment|
|Subject||Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, Moraxella catarrhalis ATCC 25238, Escherichia coli ATCC 35218, Enterobacter cloacae ATCC 13047, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 10145, Candida albicans ATCC 60193 and Candida tropicalis ATCC 13803|
|Duration||18 hours incubation|
|Dosage||1 mg/ml (100 µL) of ethanol extract
Ampicilin (30 µg/ml), triflucan (5 µg/ml) and aqueous methanol (85%, v/v) served as controls.
|Parameters analyzed||Antimicrobial activity tests|
Table 1: Antimicrobial activity of phenolic fractions of kale leaf and seed.
|Functions||In conclusion, the results of the present investigation indicate that kale leaves and seeds can be rated as good dietary sources of natural compounds with high or moderate antimicrobial activity.|
Kale (Brassica oleracea var. sabellica) Standardized Extract Powder
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